Monthly Archives: October 2014

Manuscript Collections: Papers on Demonology

The 31 of October marks the celebration of All Hallows’ Eve, more commonly known as Halloween.  It takes place on the eve of the Western Christian feast of All Hallows’ Day (also known as All Saints’ Day). While the history of Halloween remains unclear, it is widely believed that many of the traditions associated with the holiday have their origins in pagan harvest festivals such as Samhain, a Celtic festival marking the end of the harvest season and the beginning of winter. Traditionally it was believed to be a time of year when spirits from the Otherworld could more easily come into our world and the dead could mingle with the living. The festival was later Christianised by the early church which absorbed many of the traditional practices, transforming them to reflect Christian attitudes towards the honouring of the dead.

Image from ‘The life and horrible adventures of the celebrated Dr Faustus relating to his first introduction to Lucifer, and connection with infernal spirits; his method of raising the devil and his final dismissal to the tremendous abyss of hell’ from the collection MS 268

Image from ‘The life and horrible adventures of the celebrated Dr Faustus relating to his first introduction to Lucifer, and connection with infernal spirits; his method of raising the devil and his final dismissal to the tremendous abyss of hell’ from the collection MS 268

Today, the celebration of Halloween draws on a wide range of traditions and influences with a particular focus on the supernatural and the macabre. As such, it provides the perfect opportunity to highlight one of the more obscure collections held by the University’s Special Collections Division. The collection MS 268 Papers on demonology contains an array of material focusing on demonology and witchcraft in Great Britain, Ireland and continental Europe.

Among the collection are various notes, press cuttings, correspondence, photographs and postcards concerning customs and practices, art, folk lore and legends, persons, places, and plants with relation to the devil from the mid-nineteenth to early twentieth century. These include The devil at Montmartre, The devil passing into the body of the dead, Michael Scot, the wizard, and The devil according to the tradition and popular beliefs of Sicily.

The collection also contains a manuscript titled The Incubus and Succubus. The volume, complete with sketches and verse, begins with an examination of the counterpart demons Incubus and Succubus before exploring a broad range of topics relating to demonology. These include sections on nightmares, vampires, werewolves, devils, sorcery, and magical transformations. A large portion of the volume is dedicated to the examination of witches and witchcraft, providing historic accounts, such as that of Lady Kyteler of Kilkenny, as well as discussing subjects such as witch finders, tests and torture of witches, charms and spells against witches, and potions, philtres and witches spells.

The final part of the collections consists of cuttings and articles from periodicals dating from the eighteenth to the early twentieth century. These include copies of Giambattista Basile, 15 Sep and 15 Oct 1885; a programme for The tempter, Theatre Royal, Haymarket, 1898; lists of occult literature, 1897; a flyer for The book of black magic and of pacts; The devil’s funeral sermon preached before a congregation of free thinkers (London, 1735); The heart of man: the temple of the Lord or the devil’s workshop, in Armenian, (Calcutta, 1839); The ballad of the wind, the devil and Lincoln Minster by Arnold Frost (Lincoln, 1898); Concerning the devil by Saladin [William Stewart Ross] (London); Notices relative to the idolatry and devil worship of Ceylon by Robert Newstead (London, 1838); Tradicoes populares Portuguezas by Z.Consiglieri Pedroso (Oporto, 1882); and sections from publications on demonology including `Legendes, chansons, contes’, `Xylographische Werke’ (1835), `Le diable a Leipzig (c.1869), `Der Teufel’, `Il diavolo nelle tradizioni e credenze popolari Siciliane’, and `Sagen aus Westpreussen’.

Advertisements

Reflections on war and warfare: Week 35 (27 October – 2 November 2014)

As of March 2014, we are posting weekly extracts of writings on war and warfare drawn from our manuscript and printed collections. Ranging from items on the Maratha wars to the Second World War, the extracts will reflect opinions both from the battle front and from those at home. The quotes tie in with the exhibition ‘When “the days of conquest are passed”: reflections on war and warfare’, currently on display at the Special Collections Gallery.

27 October 1939 “Dead-end kids”

“Ritchie Calder (now Lord Ritchie-Calder) wrote a brilliant article in the Daily Herald on the “Dead-end kids”. In it he gave due publicity to the great problem that Basil had warned against when he urged the Authorities to provide adequate occupation and supervised recreation for children who had not been evacuated with their schools. He constantly had cases of their delinquency before him in court; they were in grave moral danger. He continued admonishing parents for keeping their children in London. A boy had misbehaved in his place of evacuation, and the Police were wiling to drop the charge against him, provided he went home. At this Basil really did “go off the deep end”. He said in Court that if the Police in Country Courts were going to do this, uncharged young delinquents would be wandering about the streets of London… Richie Calder came to see Basil on the subject. In his article he says “He” (Basil) “had been sitting 8 ½ hours in the Bench. ‘yes, it’s serious’ he said, taking off his glasses wearily, ‘Every case of under 14 I had today was a by-product of the evacuation – or the non-evacuation. We are threatened with a generation of little gansters.”

MS 132 AJ 195/3/31 Typescript of biographical journal of Sir Basil Henriques


28 October 1813 Negotiations for the surrender of Pamplona
Following the withdraw of the French Army of the North over the Pyrenees in June 1813, a Spanish army, led by Captain General Henry Enrique José O’Donnell, laid siege to a French garrison at the fortified city of Pamplona. As O’Donnell’s blockade tightened, the French troops in the city were eventually reduced to starvation and negotiations for surrendered were opened. The French finally capitulated on 31 October.

“The last I heard from Pamplona was that at half past 2 p.m. on the 26th the French negotiators had returned into the fort having offered to surrender it on condition of being allowed to return to France under an engagement not to serve for a year and a day; and declaring that they would prefer to die to surrender prisoners of war.”

MS 61 WP1/377 Copy of a letter from Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, first Marquis of Wellington, Vera, to Marshal Sir William Carr Beresford, 28 October 1813, 1 p.m.


29 October 1917 The battle of Caporetto
Fought on the Austro-Hungarian front between 24 October and 19 November 1917, the battle of Caporetto, formed part of Germany’s plan to keep the Austro-Hungarians in the war and defeat Italy. Through the use of poison gas and supporting the Austro-Hungarian forces with their troops, Germany played a significant role in the breaking through of the Italian front line and defeating the Italian Second Army. Italy suffered major losses, which included the lives of 10,000 soldiers and 265,000 taken prisoner.

“The grave Italian defeats are casting a gloom on everybody – Gorizia gone, 100,000 prisoners, 700 guns of the Germans in the Hains. What a war! Some are so sick of it that they even find a kind of consolation in the thought that these German Victories may give us some kind of a peace by Xmas! I find none and would take no comfort in such a peace. Italy, it seems, may be driven to a separate peace and things may work out as they were a century ago – England alone doing the work of the alliance.”

MS 168 AJ 217/13 Journal of Samuel Rich, 29 October 1917


30 October 1851 The situation of soldiers’ wives

“I fret for you very much… why do people marry soldiers – a farmer’s wife jogs on from day to day never having her beloved object out of her sight for perhaps one day in three score and ten. Perhaps they get tired of one another, although of course you on reading this, in fact I see you, blush and say not if they love each other. I think the Duke [of Wellington] in the Peninsula did not see his wife and children for six or seven years.”

MS 63 A904/3 Captain Edward Wellesley to his wife, Annot, 30 October 1851

The 26th Wellington Lecture and Cataloguing the lead up to Waterloo

The 26th Wellington Lecture, titled ‘The longest afternoon. The 400 men who decided the battle of Waterloo’, will take place on 22 October 2014 at 6pm at the Turner Sims, University of Southampton. The lecture will be delivered by Professor Brendan Simms, a professor in the History of International Relations and fellow at Peterhouse College, Cambridge. He is the author of Europe, shortlisted for the Lionel Gelber Prize.

The Wellington Arch

The Wellington Arch

Established in 1989 with an endowment from the Spanish Ambassador, the annual Wellington Lecture explores aspects of the life and times of the first Duke of Wellington, one of the leading military and political figures of the 19th century.

Over the years the University of Southampton has welcomed a host of distinguished speakers to present the lecture. This year eminent academic and author Professor Brendan Simms will recount how 400-odd riflemen beat back wave after wave of French infantry, until finally forced to withdraw, but only after holding up Napoleon for so long that he lost the overall contest. Drawing on previously untapped eye-witness reports for accurate and vivid details of the course of the battle, Professor Simms will capture the grand choreography and pervasive chaos of Waterloo: the advances and retreats, the death and the maiming, the heroism and the cowardice.


The Road to Waterloo
Among the events set to mark the battle of Waterloo in 2015, the University will be hosting the Sixth Wellington Congress from 10 to 12 April. In preparation for the anniversary Lara Nelson, an archivist in the Special Collections Division, recently catalogued correspondence from the Wellington Papers focusing on the lead up to Waterloo.

“Containing approximately 100,000 items, the Wellington papers are a treasure trove for those completing research relating to the career of Arthur Wellesley, first Duke of Wellington. Of particular interest is the correspondence to and from the first Duke of Wellington in the run up to the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. During the first half of this year I have been cataloguing the correspondence dating from February and April 1815.

The February correspondence consists of 26 letters, covering the first Duke of Wellington’s time at Vienna as British Plenipotentiary, which he began on 3 February 1815. They cover foreign affairs such as whether Vatteline should become a part of Switzerland, the Secret Alliance Treaty made between Britain, Austria and France, and the preparation of troops in Italy in response to Murat becoming King of Rome. An item of significant interest includes a letter from Sir Neil Campbell, who was responsible for accompanying Napoleon to Elba. Dating the 29th February 1815, the letter concerns a copy of a despatch he sent to Lord Burghersh (Envoy-extraordinary and Minister-plenipotentiary at Florence), which relates to the escape of Napoleon from Elba. He instructs the Duke of Wellington to consult the despatch so as not to lose time, and to transmit it to London for the examination of Lord Bathurst (Secretary of War and the Colonies).

The April correspondence includes 255 letters, which cover the escalation of events, and the planning and organisation of the military attack against Napoleon. The letters reflect discussions on how the invasion is to be a success, and decisions made on the composition of artillery, troops and weaponry. Fascinating items include a memorandum from Sir Hudson Lowe. It provides a list of questions to be addressed to deserters and strangers coming from the direction of the operations of the Enemy’s Army. The questions include “If a deserter: To what Corps belonging? Strength of the Corps? Commander of it?”

Together the correspondence provides a detailed picture of the international events leading up to the Battle of Waterloo. Historians can be taken through the various aspects that are involved in preparing a large military attack; from preparing artillery, troops and weaponry, to determining the logistics of security maintenance and the activities of the enemy.”

Reflections on war and warfare: Week 34 (20 – 26 October 2014)

As of March 2014, we are posting weekly extracts of writings on war and warfare drawn from our manuscript and printed collections. Ranging from items on the Maratha wars to the Second World War, the extracts will reflect opinions both from the battle front and from those at home. The quotes tie in with the exhibition ‘When “the days of conquest are passed”: reflections on war and warfare’, currently on display at the Special Collections Gallery.

21 October 1812 End of the Siege of Burgos
After the victory at Salamanca on 22 July 1812, and the liberation of Madrid on 12 August, Wellington made the decision to move against French forces in Northern Spain, leading to an attempted to capture the castle of Burgos. However, the French garrison managed to repulse every attempt by the Allies to seize the fortress. In the meantime, large French relief armies were moving from both the northeast and southeast. On 21 October, Wellington was forced to raise the siege and retreat to Cuidad Rodrigo, losing 5,000 men to hunger or exposure in the severe winter conditions.

“I am sorry to say that I am afraid that I shall be obliged to give up our position here, in consequence of the intelligence which I have received from General Hill of the movements of the enemy in the south ; and unless I should receive a contradiction of the intelligence, I propose to march this night.”

MS 61 WP1/351 Copy of a letter from General Arthur Wellesley, first Marquis of Wellington, Riobena, to Brigadier General Denis Pack, 21 October 1812


21 October 1851 The difficulties of operations in the Kroome valley

“Major General Somerset has had some hard fighting in the Kroome range where Macomo a cunning and influential Chief of the Gaikas is located. There had been hard fighting for two days and Somerset would go on until he effectively clears this difficult country from all the enemy who infests it…. If Somerset completely effects this duty it may have more influence on the termination of the war…”

MS 63 A904/3 Letter from Captain Edward Wellesley to his brother, Richard, 21 October 1851


21 October 1917 The October Revolution
As a result of military defeat and starvation, as well as internal disagreements within the provisional government, the public of Russia were unhappy with the state of their country. Citizens of Russia became irritated by Russia’s continued involvement in World War One, which led to the rise of the national debt and living costs. Consequently, strikes by Moscow and Petrograd workers occurred and the provisional government was overthrown. Power was handed to the local Soviets dominated by the majority faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party.

“All the same, one gets most awfully fed up – my dear, two bombs have just stopped 50 yards away or less! Yes very fed up, (more so than when I started this sentence) with the war. The Russian news is disgusting, and most serious. However, perhaps by the time this reaches you there may be something better to read in the papers.”

MS 132 AJ 322 2/3 Letter from Basil Henriques to Sybil Henriques, 21 October 1917


21 October 1940 Life in the East End during the Blitz

“Let me try and describe an incident on the night of 21 October 1940, at Tonybee Hall. I lived in the immediate vicinity of Tonybee Hall and thanks to Dr. Jimmy Mallon, the work done there during the Blitz was incalculable. A number of people who had special responsibilities there, slept in a room, all on mattresses on the floor, except for one lady over 80, who had a camp bed. On this night, Winston Churchill was due to speak, and so we assembled to hear him. […] The final words were completely drowned by the noise of a nearby plane and in seconds a bomb had exploded. The ceiling of our room partly collapsed, all the glass was broken; mortar and shrapnel hit us all and there was no electricity. Covered with debris, cut by glass, bruised by falling masonry, our hair matted with dirt, we stood silent for a minute. The somebody called: “I’m alright; who is hurt?” The silence was broken and nobody in that room was seriously hurt. But curiously, as we waited, we all kissed each other – a strange occurrence for a group of highly undemonstrative people, and, as always, we thanked God and prayed to Him.”

MS 116/82 AJ 221 Typescript of “Life in Stepney during World War II, 1939-45” by Edith Ramsey

A news release for the current exhibition can be viewed at:
http://www.southampton.ac.uk/mediacentre/news/2014/oct/14_190.shtml

Opening of the Hartley Institution, Wednesday 15 October 1862

The Hartley Institution – the linear predecessor of the University of Southampton – was opened by Henry John Temple, third Viscount Palmerston, on Wednesday 15 October 1862. The Inauguration was a great civic event, “a red-lettered day” according to the Southampton Times – when Lord Palmerston, the Prime Minister, was cheered into the city by enthusiastic crowds.

“Lord Palmerston frequently bowed his acknowledgments to the people and seemed fairly affected by the hearty and affectionate welcome he received.” [Supplement to the Southampton Times, 18 October 1862, BR115/8/49/2]

“Lord Palmerston frequently bowed his acknowledgments to the people and seemed fairly affected by the hearty and affectionate welcome he received.” [Supplement to the Southampton Times, 18 October 1862, BR115/8/49/2]

A special supplement to the Southampton Times chronicled the excitement: “From early dawn the streets were all alive, workmen were engaged in putting the finishing touch to the decorations, the shops were almost without exception closed, and everyone seemed bent on having a joyous holiday. The church bells rang out their merriest peals and the strains of martial music every now and then arrested the ear as the various bodies who were to join in the procession marched to the rendezvous headed by numerous bands that had been engaged for the occasion.” [BR115/8/49/2]

The Mayor of Southampton and the Corporation assembled at the Guildhall at noon. From there they were conveyed in carriages to the Second Common-gate (the boundary of the borough) to meet Lord and Lady Palmerston, who had driven over from Broadlands. A “vast concourse of persons” welcomed them with cheering; a salute was fired from a battery on Southampton Common; the bands struck up; and then the great procession wended its way to the High Street, passing through triumphal arches decorated with flags, flowers, and evergreens.

The Special Collections at the University of Southampton is home to Lord Palmerston’s diaries and also those of Anthony Evelyn Melbourne Ashley, his private secretary. Evelyn was the son of the famous seventh Earl of Shaftesbury; his maternal grandmother, Emily, had married (as her second husband) Lord Palmerston and Evelyn would subsequently inherit Broadlands. Both men refer to the Inauguration at Hartley in their diaries:

Palmerston’s entry for 15th October 1862 reads: “To Southampton with Emily in barouche; Fanny, Joscelyn, and girls, and governess, with Dutton in omnibus. Met procession at one o’clock at second turnpike from Southampton to Winchester – followed to Hartley Institution for opening. Took Mr Perkins the Mayor in our carriage.  Speeches in theatre by Bishop of Rochester, the mayor, myself, Professor Owen and others. Many very handsome triumphal arches through which procession passed. Emily and others went home. Toasts and speeches after dinner… Home by half past 11. A good deal of rain in course of day. Mild night.” [MS 62 PP/D/22]

Reflections on war and warfare: Week 33 (13 – 19 October 2014)

Today sees the opening of the exhibition ‘When “the days of conquest are passed”: reflections on war and warfare’ at the Special Collections Gallery. The exhibition forms part of the special events taking place across campus to mark the anniversary of the First World War. In conjunction with these events we are posting weekly extracts of writings on war and warfare drawn from our manuscript and printed collections. Ranging from items on the Maratha wars to the Second World War, the extracts will reflect opinions both from the battle front and from those at home.

15 October 1812 In praise of Wellington
The diary of John Holt Beaver charts his travels in Portugal and Spain in the aftermath of the Battle of Salamanca. While crossing the Sierra de Guadarrama mountain range he lodges in a house belonging to the alcalde of the village of Guadarrama. During their conversation his host praises Wellington for his decisive victory over the French at Salamanca.

“He is a young man and told us that the French had destroyed 5 houses that he had in the village, the one we were in being the only one habitable, and this was no better than an English barn […] Our host was loud in praise of the English nation, and Lord Wellington he said was the saviour of Spain, which had been ruined by a bad government and betrayed by those leading men, who ought to have defended her.”

MS 362 Diary of John Holt Beaver, 15 October 1812


16 October 1851 Operations in Kroome Forest
In 1851 the heavily outnumbered British forces began to receive reinforcements which enabled them to sweep through the Cape region. On 14 October, the first two-pronged assault was undertaken by Major General Henry Somerset and Colonel Fordyce in the Kroome Forest area which was used as a base by their opponents. Ultimately the mission was aborted as dense fog made it difficult for the forces to meet up.

“We have as yet not been able to attack from the paucity of our numbers and vast extent of forest to be cleared, where Macomo a chief of the Gaikas is located, a clever and influential man with some two or three thousand followers and Major General Somerset is about to attack him having been strongly from here. If he succeeds well it may have an important effect on the termination of the war.”

MS 63 A904/3/9 Letter from Captain Edward Wellesley to his brother, Richard, 16 October 1851


17 October 1918 The Battle of Courtrai
The Battle of Courtrai began early in the morning of 14 October 1918 with an attack from the Groupe d’Armées des Flandres and the French Sixth Army. Located at the Lys river at Comines towards Dixmude, the group comprised of twelve Belgian divisions and ten divisions of the British Second Army. While the British forces had conquered Werviq, Memnin, Morslede, Gulleghem and Steenbeck, Belgian troops had reached Iseeghem and Coretemarck. On 15 October Roulers fell to the French Army, and by the 17 October, Thourout, Ostend, Lille and Douai had been recaptured. As a result of the British Second Army crossing the Lye and capturing Coutrai, German troops retreated on the front of the Fifth Army, who encircled Lille on 18 October.

“Yesterday’s rumours were baseless but during the day enough good news came up; Ostend occupied by the British – Lille taken!…We must be careful or we’ll miss a victory or two.”

MS 168 AJ 217/14 Journal of Samuel Rich, 17 October 1918


18 October 1939 War time necessitates economies in lighting for the University College
A meeting of the Senate held on 18 October 1939 the Senate considered various suggestions for effecting an economy in lighting.

Resolved: “(a) That the start of the Easter term be deferred a week, and begin on 15 January instead of the 8th, and that the summer term be brought forward a week, and begin on 15th April instead of the 22nd April.

(b) That heads of departments be authorised to start the afternoon session at 1.30 p.m. instead of 2 p.m. if they so desire.”

MS 1/MBK/2/1/6 University College Southampton Senate minutes 1937-45, p. 77

The current exhibition forms part of the University of Southampton’s Great War: Unknown War programme – a series of events, talks, workshops and conferences taking place in 2014-15 across campus, as part of the wider global WW1 commemoration. A full programme of events can be found at: http://www.southampton.ac.uk/greatwar_unknownwar

Exhibition: ‘When “the days of conquest are passed”: reflections on war and warfare’

Reflections on war and warfare flyer. Image by kind permission of the Southern Daily Echo.

The University of Southampton Special Collections is the home of important military archive collections from the late eighteenth century to the mid twentieth century and covering the Peninsular War and the battle of Waterloo, later nineteenth-century campaigns in Africa, Afghanistan, India, the Crimea as well as the two World Wars. One of the most significant collections at Southampton is the archive of Arthur Wellesley, first Duke of Wellington, who was considered by many to be the greatest general of his age. This archive contains extensive material for the Peninsular War as well as for Waterloo and for earlier campaigns in India. Papers of Earl Mountbatten of Burma, who was Supreme Allied Commander South East Asia during the Second World War, form part of the Broadlands Archives. Drawing on material from these and across a wide range of other collections at Southampton, the exhibition will offer differing insights and reflections on war and warfare. Starting with a reflection on patriotism and duty and those who chose to fight and those who did not, the exhibition also include material from the front line and from the home front, literary reflections and items on commemoration and remembrance.

The exhibition is open weekdays, 10am to 4pm, and runs from 13 October – 12 December 2014. A private view and drinks reception will take place on Thursday, 16 October, 5pm – 7pm. All are welcome.

Venue: Special Collections Gallery, Level 4, Hartley Library, University Road, Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ.

The exhibition coincides with ‘Mark Anstee: Enchantment of Distance’ in the Level 4 Gallery.

These exhibitions form part of the University of Southampton’s Great War: Unknown War programme – a series of events, talks, workshops and conferences taking place in 2014-15 across campus, as part of the wider global WW1 commemoration. A full programme of events can be found at: http://www.southampton.ac.uk/greatwar_unknownwar

Reflections on war and warfare: Week 32 (6 – 12 October 2014)

As of March 2014, we are posting weekly extracts of writings on war and warfare drawn from our manuscript and printed collections. Ranging from items on the Maratha wars to the Second World War, the extracts will reflect opinions both from the battle front and from those at home.

6 October 1944 Meeting of the University College’s Emergency Committee of Council
The Principal reported that four heads of department and a considerable number of the rest of the staff were away on war service, and that owing to the present position of the war, and the likelihood that the number of students would rapidly increase after the end of hostilities in Europe, he would like to ensure that the University College would have the benefit of their services nest session.

Resolved: “that the Principal write in the first place to the men concerned, and point out that it is essential that they should do their utmost to get released by October 1945, and that the Principal will take such steps as may be necessary in co-operation with them to bring the matter before the University grants Committee and other authorities.”

MS 1/MBK1/8 Council minute book: University College of Southampton 1938-51, p. 72


7 October 1918 Allies receive an offer of peace from Germany
Once the Hindenberg Line in Flanders and in the Argonne had been broken, the German High Command concluded that they could not win the war. This led to them to suggest to the Reichstag that peace be negotiated with the Allies, a message reiterated by Chief of Staff, Paul von Hindenberg. On 7 November 1918, von Hindeberg contacted the Allied Supreme Commander to conduct armistice negotiations. Four days later the armistice was agreed.

“A surprise in the papers; a formal peace offer from the new German Chancellor –alarms at the Jewish Free School – J.P. for acceptance – I for guarantees. How can the allies take Germany’s word?”

MS 168 AJ 217/14 Journal of Samuel Rich, 7 October 1918


11 October 1812 Loss at the Siege of Burgos
At the Siege of Burgos, lasting from 19 September to 21 October 1812, an Anglo-Portuguese Army under General Arthur Wellesley, first Marquis of Wellington, attempted to capture the castle of Burgos in Northern Spain from a French garrison under the command of General Jean-Louis Dubreton. The French managed to repulse every attempt by the Allies to seize the fortress, resulting in a rare withdrawal by Wellington. Major Edward Charles Cocks, the eldest son of John Somers Cocks, later first Earl Somers, died leading his men in an attempt to storm the breach.

“Your son fell, as he had lived, in the zealous and gallant discharge of his duty. He had already distinguished himself in the course of the operations of the attack of the castle of Burgos to such a degree as to induce me to recommend him for promotion; and I assure jour Lordship that if Providence had spared him to you, he possessed acquirements, and was endowed with qualities, to become one of the greatest ornaments of his profession, and to continue an honor to his family, and an advantage to his country.”

MS 61 WP1/351 Copy of a letter from General Arthur Wellesley, first Marquis of Wellington, Villa Toro, to Lord Somers, 11 October 1812

China’s National Day and Golden Week

China’s National Day is celebrated every year on 1 October to commemorate the formation of the People’s Republic of China. It marks the beginning of National Day Golden Week and is celebrated throughout mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau.

Photograph of a pagoda near Shanghai, circa 1880-2, from the collection MB2/A20

Photograph of a pagoda near Shanghai, circa 1880-2, from the collection MB2/A20

A number of collections held by the University of Southampton contain records focusing on the relationship between Britain and China in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Selections of these materials were displayed in the exhibition Britain and the Far East, 1800-1950 in 2006. These included materials from the Palmerston and Wellington papers focusing on trade and colonial aspiration in the 18th century, as well as materials from the Mountbatten Papers focusing on the British relationship with the Chinese Kuomintang forces in the South-East Asian Theatre during the Second World War.

The Special Collections Division is also home to the collection MS 13 which contains four manuscript translations of Chinese poems by the renowned English sinologist Arthur Waley (1889-1966). Waley achieved much acclaim for his influential translations of Chinese and Japanese literary classics into English. Among his Chinese translations are A Hundred and Seventy Chinese Poems (1918); the Analects of Confucius (1938); The Way and its Power: A Study of the Tao Te Ching and its Place in Chinese Thought (1934), a commentary on the Tao Te Ching including a full translation; and Monkey (1942), an abridged translation of Wu Cheng’en’s Journey to the West.

Extract from a translation of Ta'o Ch'ien’s ‘Shady, Shady’ by Arthur Waley from the collection MS 13

Extract from a translation of Ta’o Ch’ien’s ‘Shady, Shady’ by Arthur Waley from the collection MS 13

The poems in the manuscript collection are “Drinking wine number 9”, “Shady, shady, the wood in front of the hall” and “A long time ago I went on a journey” by Ta’o Ch’ien, and “The pedlar of spells” by Lu Yu. They appear in a revised form in Arthur Waley Chinese poems (London, 1946, reprinted 1948) and Arthur Waley Translations from the Chinese (New York, 1919 and 1941).